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Chronology of Christian Spirituality: A.D. 1500 - A.D. 1700

A.D. 1500

(LEFT, Ignatius of Loyola by Francisco Zurbaran; RIGHT, Theresa of Avila by Fray Juan de la Miseria)

REFORMATION  (1517 - 1596)

Ignatius of Loyola, Theresa of Avila (1582), John of the Cross, Francis de Sales, Vincent de Paul, Nicholas of Cusa, Katharina Schutz Zell, Martin Luther

A.D. 1600

(St. Margaret Mary Alacoque contemplating the sacred heart of Jesus, 1765 by Giaquito Corrado)

AGE OF REASON (1600 - 1693)

QuietismFrancois Fenelon

Jansenism Margaret Mary Alacoque, St. Claude de la Colombiere

CarmelitesMaria Maddalena De' Pazzi

A.D. 1700

(Theophan the Recluse, Bishop of Tambov)


John Henry Newman, Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich Schleiermacher, John Wesley, Charles Wesley, Immanual Kant

The Philokalia (Greek edition published), 1782


The Cambridge history of Christianity. Vol. 6, Reform and expansion 1500-1660 [electronic resource], edited by R. Po-chia Hsia

The Cambridge history of Christianity. Vol. 7, Enlightenment, reawakening, and revolution, 1660-1815 [electronic resource], editors, Stewart J. Brown and Timothy Tackett

Atlas of medieval Europe, edited by David Ditchburn, Simon MacLean and Angus MacKay

Empire Online, [electronic resource], British Empire full-text documents from the 15th century to the 20th century

Ecumenical Councils of the Church

Lateran V (1512-17)

Trent (1545-63)

Confessions, Creeds, and Articles of Faith


Icon of the Holy Trinity by Andrei Rublev, c. 1425

Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck, c. 1432

The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1498

Peita (St. Peter's in Rome) by Michelango, c. 1499

The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1500

Praying Hands by Albrecht Durer, c. 1508

Isenheim Altarpiece, by Matthias Grunewald, c. 1511 - 15

The Last Judgement (Sistine Chapel), c. 1541