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ArcGIS Pro Introduction

Major Differences

ArcMap Desktop versus ArcGIS Pro

 

ArcGIS Desktop (ArcMap)

ArcGIS Pro

Project file .mxd (Map Document)
Can’t open an .aprx file
.aprx (ArcGIS Pro Project)
Can import an .mxd file into a Pro project.
License Looks for license server if an organizational license Named user license requires logging into ArcGIS Online using a named user account OR concurrent license option works like with ArcGIS Desktop.
3D ArcScene and ArcGlobe are stand-alone programs 3D integrated into the program
Catalog Stand-alone ArcCatalog program Incorporates catalog functions
Code 32-bit application 64-bit application (faster; can use >4 gb of memory)
Interface Many toolbars that must be manually be turned on or off Contextual ribbons, like MS-Office apps
Cloud Not generally integrated (online address locators for geocoding is an exception) More integrated with ArcGIS online
Layouts Only one in a map document Can have multiple in a single project
Geodatabase Default gdb in your Windows Profile directory; same for all Map Documents Creates a project folder that includes a new default gdb for that project, along with the .aprx file and a toolbox for tools you create