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Statistical Science

This guide highlights key information and resources for Statistical Science research.

Science Librarian

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Brittany Wofford

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Citation style

Statistical Science does not follow one particular citation style format. Be sure to ask your instructor which style they prefer you use in class.

The three most common citation styles used in academia are APA, MLA, and Chicago. See the Citing Sources guide below for detailed information on these different styles.

Duke University Libraries' Citing Sources home page

Citation manager quick reference guides

Citation management tools

Citation tools allow you to save and organize your research. They also let you create formatted bibliographies in Word.

Endnote product logo

Downloadable as a standalone program from OIT, EndNote is a powerful citation tool for organizing your research and creating formatted citations. In addition to the standalone option, you can create an EndNote Web account.

This feature will look for and then download full-text PDFs of articles in your references. You will have to authenticate with your NetID so that EndNote knows which journals you can access through Duke Libraries.

  1. Get to your preferences by going to Edit > Preferences
  2. Choose Find Full Text
  3. Make sure OpenURL is checked and enter into the OpenURL Path field
  4. Enter into the Authenticate URL field
  5. Click OK

Zotero product logo

Downloadable as a standalone program or a Firefox extension, Zotero is designed to store content in any format, including PDFs, images, audio and video files, and snapshots of web pages. Zotero operates with thousands of sites, and automatically indexes your library for ease of access. Zotero is open access (free!).

Citing data & statistics

Data and statistics require citations for the same reasons journal articles and other types of publications require citations: to acknowledge the original author/producer and to help other researchers find the resource.

A data set citation includes all of the same components as any other citation:

  • author,
  • title,
  • year of publication,
  • publisher (for data this is often the archive where it is housed),
  • edition or version, and
  • access information (a URL or other persistent identifier).

Unfortunately, standards for the citation of data are not uniformly agreed upon and have yet to be codified by the National Information Standards Organization (an organization that sets technical standards for other bibliographic materials). However, many data providers and distributors and some style manuals do provide guidelines. Some of these instructions are listed on this guide.

Be sure to follow the general citation format for the style manual your professor has asked you to use. It is always better to provide more information about a resource rather than less!

Adapted from "Citing Data and Statistics" by University of Michigan Libraries, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.