In addition to such standard Tokugawa texts as 解體新書, Duke has 63 Edo-era medical manuscript volumes of medical lectures transcribed by students, the papers of a Methodist missionary, Mary McMillan, which detail her services to the hibakusha, the survivors of the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as her peace activism and a collection of materials related to the effects of the the atomic bombing; see Hachiya Michihiko and Dr. Warner Wells who was a surgical consultant to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission as well as the Leon S. Adler papers which document the destruction of Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Okinawa.
Duke has collected widely on issues relating to Japan's colonial experience in Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria and China in Chinese, Japanese and Korean. Materials include two newspaper databases (the Taiwan Nichinichi shinpō and the Keijo nippō), reprints of overseas editions of the Asahi and the Mainichi newspapers, government documents from the Taiwan Governor General. materials on the comfort women, literature written in Japanese in Taiwan or Korea, Buddhism in Korea in the colonial period and more.
Duke's focus has been on 19th and 20th century Japanese Buddhism. Notable resources include: Chūgai nippō, Shaji torishirabe ruisan, the collected works of Ikeda Daisaku and other materials related to the Soka gakkai, and the D. T. Suzuki Documentary Project Collection. The Divinity School library, together with Rubenstein, has collected missionary papers.
Duke has a strong collection of economists' papers in special collections. Several economists had interests in and/ or experience in Japan: Martin Brofenbrenner served in the Occupation; two Nobel prize winners', Paul Samuelson and Franco Modigliani, as well as Leonard Silk, Robert W. Clower, and Juanita Morris Kreps had research interests in Japan. It is possible to search within the finding aids for the collection to identify relevant material.