Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

2011 Arab Revolutions: Getting Started

Al-Jazeera English

Loading ...

Related Topics

Books in Duke's collections about the Internet's political aspects:

Loading ...

Web Archives

Ever since a man in Tunisia burned himself to death in December 2010 in protest at his treatment by police, pro-democracy rebellions have erupted across the Middle East. This timeline is kept up-to-date by Milestones in the timeline link to articles published on events occurring on that specific date.


Need to cite tweets and facebook posts? Take a look at the suggestions on the APAStyle blog here.

Other Web Archives:


The word on the tortoise's shell is REVOLUTION in Arabic, written with the red and white colours of the Tunisian flag. Click the links below to see in our online catalog selections of books on:

See also:

Oweidat, Nadia et al.
The Kefaya Movement: A Case Study of a Grassroots Reform Initiative
For locally held paper copy, check availability @ Duke
Kefaya, also known as the Egyptian Movement for Change, was an indigenous movement for political reform organized in late 2004 in opposition to the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. This examination of Kefaya's birth, its accomplishments, and the reasons for its decline is based on an analysis of the work of Egyptian scholars and Arabic-language media reports (including online and new media), as well as structured interviews with persons associated with and observers of Kefaya and the Muslim Brotherhood. It explores the challenges to grassroots attempts to bring about democracy and implement political reform in the Arab world in general and in Egypt in particular and looks at the implications of such movements for U.S. policy in the region.
Emerson, Michael (ed.)
Democratisation in the European neighbourhood.
Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2005.
Perkins/Bostock Library JN96.A58 D466 2005
Check availability @ Duke
TOC: Part I. The Democratisation Front-Line in the European Neighbourhood EU Enlargement and Democracy Progress (Alina Mungiu-Pippidi) (p. 15) The Dynamics and Sustainability of the Rose Revolution (Ghia Nodia) (p. 38) The Orange Revolution: Explaining the Unexpected (Hryhoriy Nemyria) (p. 53) Quid Russian democracy? (Nikolay Petrov) (p. 63) Prospects for Democracy in Belarus (Uladzimir Rouda) (p. 71) Islam, Freedom and Democracy in the Arab World (Bassam Tibi) (p. 93) Egypt's Moment of Reform: A reality or an illusion? (Emad El-Din Shahin) (p. 117) Does the EU promote democracy in Palestine? (Nathalie Tocci) (p. 131) Parties of Power as Roadblocks to Democracy: The Cases of Ukraine and Egypt (Madalena Resende and Hendrik Kraetzschmar) (p. 153) Part II. The EU as Exporter of Democratic Values The Reluctant Debutante - The EU as Promoter of Democracy in its Neighbourhood (Michael Emerson and Senem Aydin and Gergana Noutcheva and Nathalie Tocci and Marius Vahl and Richard Youngs) (p. 169)

Of Related Interest:

Abdulla, Rasha A.
The Internet in the Arab world : Egypt and beyond.
New York: Peter Lang, 2007
Perkins/Bostock Library HN786.Z9 I5615 2007 Check availability @ Duke
Bunt, Gary R.
iMuslims : rewiring the house of Islam.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Divinity School Library BP40.5 .B857 2009 Check availability @ Duke
Table of Contents: Introduction: iMuslims and cyber-Islamic environments -- Locating Islam in cyberspace -- Accessing cyber-Islamic environments -- Decoding the sacred: Islamic source code -- The Islamic blogosphere -- The cutting edge: militaristic jihad in cyberspace -- Digital jihadi battlefields: Iraq and Palestine -- Conclusion. The transformation of cyber-Islamic environments -- Glossary of key Islamic terms.
Bunt, Gary R.
Islam in the digital age : e-jihad, online fatwas and cyber Islamic environments.
London ; Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press, 2003.
Divinity School Library BP40.5 .B86 2003 Check availability @ Duke
Table of Contents: 'The digital sword'? and defining 'e-jihad' -- Hacktivism, hacking and cracking in the name of Islam -- Cyber Islamic reactions to 9-11 : muhajideen in cyberspace -- Cyber Islamic reactions to 9-11 : the 'inter-fada' and global e-jihad -- Cyber-Islamic reactions to 9-11 : jihad for peace -- Islamic decision making and advice online -- Sunni religious authority on the internet I : Muslim majority contexts -- Sunni religious authority on the internet II : Muslim minority -- The online mujtahid : Islamic diversity and authority online -- Islam in the digital age.
Bunt, Gary R.
Virtually Islamic : computer-mediated communication and cyber Islamic environments.
Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.
Divinity School Library P96.I84 B85 2000 Check availability @ Duke
Faris, David M.
Dissent and revolution in a digital age : social media, blogging and activism in Egypt.
London: I.B. Tauris, 2013.
Perkins/Bostock Library DT107.87 .F375 2012 Check availability @ Duke
Kamalipour, Yahya R. (ed.)
Media, power, and politics in the digital age : the 2009 presidential election uprising in Iran.
Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
Perkins/Bostock Library JQ1789.A5 M43 2010 Check availability @ Duke
Karolak, Magdalena.
The social media wars : Sunni and Shia identity conflicts in the age of the Web 2.0 and the Arab Spring.
Palo Alto, CA: Academica Press, 2014
Perkins/Bostock Library HN668.Z9 I5653 2014 Check availability @ Duke

Projects on the Internet and Social Media in the Middle East

OpenNet Initiative (ONI)
Middle East & North Africa

OpenNet Initiative’s mission is to identify and document Internet filtering and surveillance, and to promote and inform wider public dialogs about such practices.Their latest report examines these practices in Middle Eastern and North African contexts. Click on the link below to see the report.

The OpenNet Initiative (ONI) is a collaborative partnership of four leading academic institutions: the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto; Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University; the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme, University of Cambridge; and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University.

Berkman Center for Internet & Society


Think Tanks



Special Issues: