The Proximity toolset includes:
- Near: For each feature in the input layer, the Near tool finds the nearest feature in same or another layer. Adds attributes such as distance to attributes of input table. Works with points, lines, polygons. Online help.
- Generate Near Table: A tool similar to above, but creates a new table rather than adding to existing attributes. Online help.
- Point Distance: Works only with point layers. For each point in the input layer, this tool finds the distance to every other point in the same or another point layer. Results are recorded in a new table. To limit the number of calculations, using a Search Radius is recommended for large datasets because the output table can get really big. Online help.
- Buffer: Creates buffer polygons (a new layer) around input features to a specified distance. An optional dissolve can be performed to combine overlapping buffers. Online help. Also see a more technical discussion of how it works, including a discussion of geodesic buffering used with unprojected geographic coordinate systems (degrees longitude and latitude) and why this might be appropriate.
- Multiple Ring Buffer: Creates multiple buffers at specified distances around the input features (i.e., rings around features). These buffers can optionally be merged and dissolved using the buffer distance values to create non-overlapping buffers. Online help.
- Create Thiessen Polygons: Creates Thiessen polygons (proximal zones or Voronoi cells) from point input features. Any location within a Thiessen polygon is closer to its associated point than to any other point input feature. Online help.