HeinOnline provides access to numerous public documents, including the Congressional Globe, which contains the debates of Congress from 1833 to 1873. To search the Globe, from the main screen, go to the Browse Databases by Name section. Select the U.S. Congressional Documents database. From the pull-down menu, select Congressional Record. Then from the next screen, select the Congressional Globe.
Proquest Congressional provides full-text access to Congressional documents from 1789 to present, hearings from 1824 to the present, Executive Branch documents, bills and laws, etc.
U.S. Congressional Serial Set provides full-text access to the reports, documents, and journals of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Date coverage is 1817 to 1994. The Serial Set does not typically include hearings (though some hearings from the late 19th and early 20th centuries are included).
Public documents, including printed resources from the Census of Population and Housing in addition to special reports, can be found on the 2nd floor of Perkins Library. Many of these resources are represented in the Library's online catalog, but you shouldn't hesitate to ask for help.
Overview (these volumes are all located in the Perkins Reference):
Schulze, Suzanne. Population Information in Nineteenth Century Census Volumes. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1983. HA214 .S385 1983